Clinical Research: Your Questions Answered

Safety in a Violent Incident

  • Talk to supportive family or friends about the violence in your relationship.
  • Have a place you can go in case you have to leave your residence.
  • Notify neighbors about the violence and request they call the police if they hear suspicious sounds coming from the residence.
  • Keep your purse and car keys in place that you can easily access in order to leave quickly.
  • During a violent episode, try to position yourself in a room that has access to outside. Do not be in a room that contains weapons.
  • Familiarize yourself with domestic violence services and shelters that you can call in case you need to leave your home. Hotline Number for Dauphin County: 1-800-654-1211.
  • Use your instincts, intuition, and judgment. Protect yourself and your children until you are out of danger, even if that means giving your partner what they want until he/she calms down.

Safety When Preparing to Leave

  • Prepare Important Documents.
  • Keep at your residence or with a trusted friend/family member.
  • Social Security Cards Birth Certificates Photo ID/Driver’s License Green Cards Health Insurance Cards
  • Important Phone Numbers and Addresses (friends, family, police, domestic violence services)
  • Open a savings account in your name or hide extra money in a safe place
  • Pack a bag that can be easily accessed when you leave. This bag can also be keep at a friend/family/or neighbor’s house.
    • Include: Set of extra clothing for you and your children Important documents
    • An extra set of house and car keys
    • Extra money, Credit cards, Checkbook, Food stamps
    • Medication for parent and children
    • Keep extra change for phone calls from payphones.
  • Know that if you use a credit card, the following month’s telephone bill will tell the batterer whom you called after you left.
  • Keep this information confidential by using a prepaid phone card, using a friend's telephone card, calling collect, or using change.

Safety if the perpetrator has Been Removed from the Home

  • Change locks on doors
  • Change your phone number and keep it unlisted.
  • Purchase and install smoke detectors and fire extinguishers.
  • Purchase rope ladders to be used to escape from second floor windows.
  • If possible, install a security system or outdoor lights that are sensitive to movement.
  • Notify neighbors and friends to call the police if they see the perpetrator or his car around the property.

Protection Orders

  • Always carry a certified copy and keep a photocopy in a safe place.
  • Give a copy of the order to the police department in the community where you live.
  • If your partner violates the protection order, call the police and report it.
  • You can also contact your lawyer, advocate, counselor, and/ or tell the courts about the violation.

Safety at Work and in Public Places

  • Notify your boss or workplace security about your violent situation.
  • Provide them with a picture and a copy of a protection order, if available, so they could call the police if the perpetrator is spotted.
  • If possible, have someone screen your incoming phone calls.
  • Vary your daily routine.
  • Shop at different grocery stores and shopping malls at different times than usual. Also, change banks if possible.

Safety Planning with Children

  • Teach children how to dial 911 in the case of an emergency.
  • Make sure they know their address and last name.
  • Think of a code word that you can use with your children that will signal them to leave the house and call for help.
  • Have a place (neighbor/family member’s house) where they can easily get to during a violent incidence. Here they get help without putting themselves in danger.
  • Teach children how to make collect calls to yourself or a friend/family member in the event that your partner takes the children.
  • Notify your children’s school about your violent situation.
  • Discuss with them who has permission to pick up your children.
  • Provide them with a picture and a copy of a protection order, if available, so they could call the police if the perpetrator is spotted.

  • National Hotline - 1-800-799-SAFE (7233)
  • Penn State Milton S. Hershey Medical Center Medical Advocate - 717- 531-5188
  • Dauphin City (YWCA) - 1-800-654-1211
  • Cumberland - 1-800--258-2102
  • Lancaster - 717-299-1249
  • Lebanon - 717-273-7190
  • Perry - 1-800-258-2102

  • Family Violence Prevention Fund, Improving the Health Care Response
  • Massachusetts Medical Society, Seminar Series on Domestic Violence
  • Bureau of Justice Statistics Crime Data Brief, Intimate Partner Violence, 1993-2001, February 2003
  • Rand, Micheal R. 1997. Violence-related Injuries Treated in Hospital Emergency Departments. U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics. Washington, DC
  • Domestic Violence Assessment Tips, Family Violence Prevention Fund, October 1999
  • Seattle Domestic Violence Intervention Project: Domest Violence: A Community Crisis Waiting For an Effective Response, 1989.
  • Melvin, SY, Rhyne, MC, Domestic Violence, Chapter 1
  • Bureau of Justice Statistics Crime Data Brief, Intimate Partner Violence, 1993-2001, February 2003
  • Groves, BM, Suckerman, B, Marans S. et al: Silent victims: Children who witness violence. JAMA 269:262-264, 1993.
  • Video Freedom: Tibits on television.
  • Coker, A, Smith, P, Bethea, L, King, M, McKeown, R (2000), “Physical Health Consequences of Physical and Psychological Intimate Partner Violence. Archives of Family Medicine. Vol. 9.
  • Strauss, M, Gelles, R, Silverman J, and Smith C. 1990. Physical Violence in American Families: Risk Factors and Adaptations to Violence in 8,145 families. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers.
  • Rennison, Callie Marie. U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, “Intimate Partner Violence and Age of Victim, 1993-1999.” October 2001.
  • Horon, I. & Cheng, D. 2001. “Enhanced Surveillance for Pregnancy-Associated Mortality- Maryland, 1993-1998.” The Journal of the American Medical Association. 285(11)
  • Parker B, McFarlane J, and Soeken K. 1994. Abuse during pregnancy: Effects on maternal complications and infant birthweight in adult and teen women. Obstet Gynecol 84(3): 323-8.
  • McFarlane, J. et al. “Physical Abuse, Smoking, and Substance Abuse During Pregnancy: Prevalence, Interrelationships and Effects on Birthweight,” Journal of Obstetrical Gynecological and Neonatal Nursing, Vol. 25, pg 313-20 (1996).
  • Battaglia, TA, Finley, E, Liebschutz, JM, Survivors of Intimate Partner Violence Speak Out: Trust in the Patient-Provider Relationship 2003
  • Caralis, PV, Musialowski, R, Women’s Experience with Domestic Violence and Their Attitudes and Expectations Regarding medical Care of Abuse Victims, 1997
  • Feldhaus, KM, Koziol-McLain, J, Amsbury, HL, Norton, IM, Lowenstein, SR, Abbott, jt, Accuracy of 3 Brief Screening Questions for Detecting Partner Violence in the Emergency Department, 1997
  • Rodriquez, M Bauer, H., McLoughlin, E., Grumbach, K. 1999. “Screening and Intervention for Intimate Partner Abuse: Practices and Attitudes of Primary Care Physicians.” The Journal of the American Medical Association. 282(5).
  • Hayden, SR, Barton, ED, Hayden, M, Domestic Violence in the Emergency Department: How Do Women Prefer to Disclose and Discuss the Issue? 1997
  • Housekamp, B.M. and Foy, D., “The Assessment of Posttaumatic Stress Disorder in Battered Women”, Journal of Interpersonal Violence, Vol. 6(3), 1991
  • Kramer, A., Lorenzon, D., Mueller, G, Prevalence of Intimate Partner Violence and Health Implications for Women Using Emergency Departments and Primary Care Clinics 2004
  • Krasnoff, M, Moscasti, R, Domestic Violence Screening and Referral Can Be Effective, 2002
  • McCauley, Jeanne, Inside Pandora’s Box, Abused Women’s Experiences with Clinicians and Health Services
  • Taft, A, Broom, DH, Legge, D, General Practitioner: Management of intimate partner abuse and the whole family: qualitative study, 2004
  • Varjavand, N, Cohen, DG, Gracely, EJ, Novack, DH, A Survey of Resident’s Attitudes and Practices in Screening for, Managing, and Documenting Domestic Violence, 2004
  • Tjaden, Patricia and Thoennes, Nancy. National Institute of Justice and the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention, “Extent, Nature, and Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence.” (2000)
  • "Dynamics of Domestic Violence - The Cycle of Violence: Lenore Walker." (n.d.). Retrieved October 23, 2002
  • Roizen J. Issues in the epidemiology of alcohol and violence. In: Martin SE, editor. Alcohol and Interpersonal Violence: Fostering multidisciplinary perspectives. Bethesda (MD): National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; 1993.
  • Gelles, R.J. and Harrop, J.W., “Violence, Battering, and Psychological Distress Among Women,” Journal of Interpersonal Violence, Vol 4(1), 1989
  • Stark, E. and Flitcraft, A. “Killing the Beast Within,: Women Battering and Female Suicidality,” Interpersonal Journal of Health Sciences, Vol. 25 (1), 1995.
  • Saltzman, LE., Johnson, C.H., Gilbert, BC., and Goodwin, F. :Physical Abuse Around the Time of Pregnancy: An Examination of Prevalence and Risk Factors in 16 States.” Maternal and Child Health Journal, Vol.7, pg. 31-42 (2003).
  • Goodwin, M., Gazmararian, J.A., Johnson, C.H., Gilbert, B.C., Saltzman, L.E. and Group, P.W., (2000). Pregnancy intendedness and physical abuse around the time pregnancy: Findings from the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, 1996-1997. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 4(2), 85-92.
  • Rachana, C., Suraiya, K., Hishman, A., Abdulaziz, A., and Hai, A. (2002). Prevalence and complications of physical violence during pregnancy. European Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, 103, 26-29.
  • McCaw, B., Berman, W.H., Syme, L., Hunkeler, E.F. (2001) Beyond Screening for Domestic Violence: A Systems Model Approach in a Managed Care Setting. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 21(3), 170-176.
  • Health Privacy Principles for Protecting Victims of Domestic Violence, October 2000. Family Violence Prevention Fund.
  • Documenting Domestic Violence: How Health Care Providers Can Help Victims, September 2001, National Institute of Justice: Research in Brief. U.S. Department of Justice.

  • Identifying and Responding to Domestic Violence: Consensus Recommendations for Child and Adolescent Health, Family Violence Prevention Fund. September 2002
  • Edleson JL, (1999). “Children’s witnessing of Domestic Violence”, Journal of Interpersonal Violence. 14. (8), 839-870.
  • Bowker, Arbitell & McFerron, “On the Relationship Between Wife Beating and Child Abuse,” in Yillo & Gofrad, Feminist Perspectives on Wife Abuse 158. 162(1998).
  • Zeanah, CZ and Scheeringa, M. Evaluation of post-traumatic symptomatology in infants and young children exposed to violence. Sero to Three (April/May 1996) 16:9-14; Bell, C Exposure to violence distresses children and may lead to their becoming violent. Psychiatric News (Jan 6 1995) 6-8, 15; Drell, M, Siegel, C and Gaensbauer, T. Posttraumatic stress disorder. In Handbook of infant mental health. C. Zeananh, ed. New Yourk: The Guilford Press, 1993. pp. 291-304; Jaffe P, Wilson, S and Wolfe, D, Promoting changes in attitudes and understanding of conflict resolution among child victims of family violence. Canadian Journal of Behavior Sciences (1986) 18:356-66; see not no. 15, Osofsky and Fenichel; see not no 17, Pynoos
  • Jaffe P. and Suderman M., “Child Witness of Women Abuse: Research and Community Responses”, in Stith, S. and Straus, M., (1995). Understanding Partner Violence: Prevalence, Causes, Consequences, and Solutions. Families in Focus Services, Vol. II. Mineapolis, MN: National Council on Family Relations.
  • Holden, GW, Gefner, RA, Jouriles, EN (1998). Children Exposed to Marital Violence: Theory, Research, and Applied Issues. Washington DC: American Psychological Association.
  • Wofe, DA, Wekerle, C, Reitzel D, and Gough, R. Strategies to address violence in the lives of high risk youth. In Peled, E, Jaffe, PG and Edlesdon JL (eds.) Ending the Cycle of Violence: Community Responses to Children of Battered Women. New York. Sage Publications. 1995.
  • Kilpatrick LI, Litt, M and Williams L (1997). Post traumatic stress disorder in child witnesses to domestic violence. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 67(4), 639-644.
  • Groves, BM and Swuckerman, B. Interventions with parents and caregivers of children who are exposed to violence. In Children in a violent society. JD Osofsky, ed. New York: Guilford Press, 1997; Marans, S and Chohen, D. Children and inner-city violence: Strategies for intervention. In Psychological effects of war and violence on children. L. Leavitt and N. Fox, eds. Hillsdale, NF: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1993. pp. 281-302; Osofsky, JD, and Thompson, D. Adaptive and maladaptive parenting: Perspectives on risk and protective factors. In handbook of early intervention. 2nd ed. JF Shonkoff and SJ Meisels, ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, in press; see not no. 15, Duncan; see not no. 16, Osofsky and Fenichel, see not no. 25, Richters and Marinez.
  • Jay G. Silverman, PhD; Anita Raj, PhD; Lorelei A. Mucci, MPH; and Jeanne E. Hathaway, MD, MPH, “Dating Violence Against Adolescent Girls and Associated Substance Use, Unhealthy Weight Control, Sexual Risk Behavior, Pregnancy, and Suicide,” Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 286, No. 5, 2001
    11. Children Now, Kaiser Permanente Poll, December 1995.
  • Harvard School of Public Health (2001). “Dating Violence Against Adolescent Girls Linked with Teen Pregnancy, Suicide, and Other Health Risk Behaviors.”

  • Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Domestic Violence in 2000: A Report of the National Coalition of Anti-Violence Programs, 2001 Preliminary Edition.



Health Care

  • "Emergency." The University of Texas at Austin
  • "Pills."
  • "Woman sitting."
  • "Pregnancy." Eastside Domestic Violence Program.
  • "Health care provider and patient." National Cancer Institute.
  • "Health care provider interviewing patient."
  • "Health care provider and patient." Photo courtesy of IPAS.
  • "Child."
  • "Health care provider examining patient."
  • "Health care provider examining patient."
  • "Justice." The Women's Center at Old Dominion University
  • "Woman's arm with bruises." Judy Walter: Hershey Medical Center Domestic Violence Advocate.
  • "Nurse with patient." National Cancer Institute.
  • "Woman with face scratches and bruises." Judy Walter: Hershey Medical Center Domestic Violence Advocate.
  • "No excuse." Dave's EMS Website
  • "Girl pondering."
  • "Gun."
  • "Chart." Made for this training tool.
  • "Physician planning with patient." National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health.
  • "Writing."
  • "Door knob."







  • Family Violence Prevention Fund
  • National Coalition Against Domestic Violence
  • National Domestic Violence Hotline: 1-800-799-SAFE
  • Pennsylvania Coalition Against Domestic Violence (PCADV) (also the location of the National Center)
    6400 Flank Drive, Suite 1300
    Harrisburg, PA 17112
    PA 800-932-4632 (Monday - Friday - 9:00 a.m. - 5:00 p.m.
    National - 800-671-8149
  • PA Coalition Against Rape
    800-692-7445 (Monday - Sunday - 24 hours)
  • Rape Crisis Line
    800-654-1211 (24 hours)
  • Domestic Violence Line
    717-238-7273 (24 hours)
  • VictimLaw - Crime Victim Rights Laws by National Center for Victims of Crime and the U.S. Department of Justice
  • Women's Law - Legal Information