Emergency Care Simulator
The Emergency Care Simulator (ECS) by Medical Education Technologies Inc (METI) is a full body, model-driven manikin, based on Human Patient Simulator technology. The ECS contains complex physiological modelling which controls the manikin's responses to users and to the environment. There are also over a hundred parameters that can be combined in various ways to create an unlimited number of disease states. The conditions can be of varying severity and subtlety to cater to trainees at the introductory level through practicing doctors and nurses. The disease states can be programmed prior to the session or can be adjusted in real time.
The cardiac system includes pulses bilaterally at six points (carotid, brachial, radial, femoral, popliteal and pedal) which are sensitive to changes in systolic blood pressure. The pulses also have individual controls to simulate compartment syndrome or other conditions in which a pulse would be absent. Heart rhythms (over 30 normal and abnormal) are detected by standard patient monitors and defibrillators. A non-invasive blood pressure can also be read by real monitors. Heart sounds can vary from normal to a variety of systolic and diastolic murmurs.
Pulmonary physiology includes lung movement correlated to chest wall movement and lung sounds. Respiratory rate and tidal volume are determined automatically by the manikin based on metabolic needs and the amount of oxygen being inspired, but can be altered to show a patient condition such as asthma or a collapsed lung. An add-on module allows a realistic amount of carbon dioxide in the manikin's exhaled "breath" to be read by standard monitors.
Other signs, such as convulsions, pupil diameter changes and bowel sounds are also present. The manikin responds to several kinds of fluids administered through the computer interface, as well as having the ability to show the effects of whole blood or plasma loss.
A series of time-stamped logs is recorded every time the manikin is used. The drug log show amount and time of each drug administered. The physiologic data log records dozens of vital signs at user-specified intervals, as fast as every couple of seconds. The event log indicates parameter changes and interventions that the user performs, such as drug administration. The event log and physiological data log can be correlated for a feedback session to review with the trainee the patient's status as a result of each intervention.