Task Specific Models

Task specific models are designed to teach a specific task, procedure, or anatomic region. They often resemble anatomic sections of the body, but this is not necessary. Some are automated, but there is no adjustment based on the user's actions. One benefit of task specific models is their relatively low startup and maintenance cost. The anatomic models are usually affordable enough to allow each center to have many duplicates of many models. This allows concurrent teaching of a large class, broken down into small groups, to increase the hands-on time for each trainee.

At the moment, the task specific models that have been included here are those that either teach a variety of skills, are non-anatomic models, give more than minimal feedback, or are base units to which multiple anatomic sections can be added. The purely anatomic models are being compiled. The list is very long and will take some time to research, so this portion of the site will be incomplete for the near future. In the meantime, an alphabetical list of companies who produce anatomic models is listed. Please note that some manufacturers are also general distributors. Because of the vast number of products that will eventually be listed here, only links to manufacturers are provided.

This site accepts NO compensation from any company for advertising or product promotion. A listing in this page does not signify an endorsement of any product by the Penn State Hershey Simulation Center or by the Penn State College of Medicine at the Penn State Milton S. Hershey Medical Center.


Model Manufacturers and Distributors

Task Specific Models

Active Servo Lung (IngMar Medical

This model replicates neonatal, pediatric and adult lungs under a variety of normal and disease states. The desired baseline airway and changes over time can be programmed ahead into a script or adjusted during the simulation, including breath by breath alterations. Factors such as nonlinear compliance, resistance, and work of breathing can be adjusted for either or both lungs. Add-on modules are available to customize and expand the system, including temperature control and oxygen measurement.

Cardiology Patient Simulator, "Harvey" (Center for Research in Medical Simulation)

Harvey, as the CPS is commonly called, allows students to practice a cardiac exam on a patient with varying pathophysiologies. Heart sounds are audible at multiple auscultation points. Precordial movements can also be palpated. The simulator comes with instructional slides and can be used independently, in student-led teams, or with an instructor. Large groups can be taught with the addition of transmitters and video equipment.

Central Line Man (Simulab)

Central Line Man allows multiple approaches to inserting central lines. Both landmark-identification and ultrasound-guided techniques can be taught on the same model. Trainees can practice catheterizing the subclavian vein (with a subclavian or supraclavicular approach) or the internal jugular vein. The model returns either red or blue fluid to represent arterial or venous blood. The arteries pulse to allow differentiation between the vessels. Venous pressure is adjustable to simulate complications.

Complete Arm Model (Blue Phantom)

Ultrasound guided peripheral vascular techniques are taught on this model. Normal basilic and brachial vessels for the upper arm and radial, ulnar, basilic and cephalic vessels for the lower arm are available for cannulation. There are also several interchangeable inserts available separately for more advanced training, such as brachial vein thrombosis and branched or overlapping veins. Ultrasound equipment in-services can be performed using this model. Feedback includes real time imaging on a standard ultrasound machine and fluid flashback during cannulation.

Cricoid Pressure Trainer (Flinders Meditech)

The Cricoid Pressure Trainer is used to teach correct position and pressure for the Sellick Maneuver. The full version of the trainer is built into an airway head (Airway Larry, by Nasco). This allows incorporation of the technique into an intubation, allowing the trainees to see how and when the technique would be used within the whole procedure. Also, the trainees can see the changing laryngeal view as cricoid pressure is applied. The real time feedback display includes a pressure scale in multiple units and a display to show the direction of pressure.

Dexter (Robotechnology)

Dexter is a non-anatomic model for acquiring fiberoptic skills. It cannot be used to teach the bronchial tree. It can, however, teach about how to use the equipment and about environmental issues, such as orientation within the patient. The model has dual entry points, simulating nasal or oral introduction of the scope. Once inside the model, trainees must maneuver through the customizable branches of tubes. There are also specific skill areas, such as a slalom course to be threaded and orientation questions to be answered. Gauging distances can also be practiced, such as estimating how many millimeters apart are two specified images.

Epidural Injection Trainer (Flinders Meditech)

This model allows the feeling of performing epidural injections in multiple patients with variable anatomy. Air or saline techniques can be practiced. There is a setting to determine the thickness of the tissue layers, or the random setting can be used. This allows practice in a more realistic way when working independently. Vertebrae and hips are present and can be rotated to present in either an upright or lateral position. Tactile feedback is provided by a loss of resistance through the simulated needle, while visual feedback is provided by a real time graphic display of the depth of insertion relative to the surrounding tissues. The epidural trainer can be used for either teaching or testing by turning the feedback display panel towards or away from the trainee.

FAST Trauma Real-Time Ultrasound Training Model (Blue Phantom)

The FAST ultrasound model trains ultrasound skills in emergency and trauma settings. The heart, bladder, liver and spleen have adjustable bleeding rates to create a variety of trauma situations. Variable pressure on the ultrasound probe alters the image, teaching correct probe use. In addition the other internal organs in the thoracic, abdominal and pelvic cavities are visible on ultrasound, including lungs, bowel, skeleton and more. Real ultrasounds are used on the model, to allow trainees to learn on the same equipment that is used in their own clinical environment.

Hernia Model (Simulab)

Simulab's Hernia Model is a multi-procedure task trainer. Surgical mesh placement can be practiced ventrally, directly or indirectly. Anatomical landmarks and structures are incorporated, such as the pelvis, Cooper's ligament, iliac and epigastric vessels, and the parietal peritoneum.

Hillway Head (Hillway)

The Hillway head is a multidepartmental, multi-function anatomical model of the human head and neck. The model teaches airway management, skills for transoral surgeries, dental procedures, and other head and neck surgeries. Features that have been realistically modelled include the skin, bone (skull and cervical spine), teeth, and brain tissue. Many arteries are present, as are other soft tissue and bone replacement parts.

Knot Tying Trainer (Limbs and Things)

This trainer is adaptable to teach open or laparoscopic knot tying skills. Cylinders restrict access so that more complicated angles and depths can be simulated. A two-color cord is included to visualize each end of the suture during tying and after a knot is complete. Variable tissue strength is simulated by adjusting the resistance of the hooks on which the knots are tied. Fluid-filled tubes make the feel of tying vessels realistic.

LapTrainer with SimuVision (Simulab)

The SimuView trainer is designed for practicing minimally invasive surgery basic skills sets, especially suturing and dissection. Using a dual mirror design allows practice in a two dimensional visual field without the need for a laparoscopic camera or light source. Real tools are used, to allow equipment training as well as the skills. Most anatomic and non-anatomic objects can be used in the trainer, in addition to the replaceable tissue suture pad that comes with each unit.

Minimal Access Therapy Technique (Limbs & Things)

The Minimal Access Therapy Technique (MATT) trainer is designed to allow practice of a wide variety of abdominal surgery techniques, by placing soft tissue models inside the abdominal cover. Any tissue model can be used, including wet models. The cover allows realistic trocar and camera placement, as the user determines instrument position, laterally or ventrally. It can be used with an add-on camera arm, which allows independent training. Although the trainer is designed mainly for minimally invasive surgical procedures, open surgery can also be practiced, by removing the abdominal skin cover.

Pelvic ExamSim (METI)

The Pelvic ExamSim is a training and testing tool for gynecological exams. The model uses internal sensors to record the location and pressure exerted during a manual exam. Normal as well as several abnormal inserts are used interchangeably. The computer interface can be turned towards or away from the trainee for teaching or testing purposes, respectively. During teaching, real time visual feedback augments the tactile feedback of the manikin. For assessment, only the instructor sees the computer interface. Feedback can be given after the procedure by reviewing the trainee's performance and comparing it to experts and novices. Improvements over time can also be recorded for each trainee.

PHaSES Abdominal Open Closure Trainer (Limbs & Things)

This trainer is designed to teach trainees to enter, perform invasive procedures on, and close the abdominal cavity without interfering with internal organs. The skin has multiple layers, to accommodate a variety of incision and suturing techniques. Diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL) can be taught with fluids. A balloon is inserted into the abdominal cavity to simulate the bowel and the skin tension it produces. The balloon also gives feedback if the "bowel" is damaged during a procedure.

PHaSES Knot Tying Board (Simulab)

Several knot tying skills can be practiced on this model. There are hooks to hold suture while tying basic knots either by hand or with instruments. Tubing set apart at various distances allows practice of the appropriate knot tension for approximation and for maintaining traction during knot tying. Two pads allow practice of inserting the suture with a needle prior to knot tying.

Portable Laparoscopic Trainer (3D Technical Services)

This laparoscopic trainer is ideal for training on-site. The box is designed for use with real tools, so equipment in-services can also be taught. The trainer has a built-in camera for single trainee use, but an optional camera can be added so that camera driving and tracking can also be practiced. There are several ports along the top, front and sides for optimal tool placement for a variety of procedures. The multiple ports also allow more than one trainee to practice as a team.

Sakura Patient Care Simulator (Kyoto Kagaku)

Sakura is a full body manikin with a number of applications. Basic patient care skills such as hair / oral / denture care, passive exercising, and anal / rectal / vaginal care can be trained. More advanced patient care is possible as well, including care of stomas and tracheostomies, catheterization, IM injections, and stomach pumping. The model sits unaided, is fully articulated, and has a variety of fluid systems, such as gastric contents and catheterization flashback.

Student Auscultation Manikin, "SAM" (Cardionics)

Sam is a partial torso manikin which allows users to use standard stethoscopes to auscultate normal and abnormal heart, lung and bowel sounds. Lung sounds are present on the anterior and posterior. A small set of sounds comes with the base unit, with over 50 pre-programmed adult and infant sounds available, plus the ability to add custom sounds as well. For larger groups, the sounds can be projected through speakers. Carotid pulses and bruits are available as add-ons.

SurgicalSim LTS (METI)

The LTS incorporates several laparoscopic skills with computer measurements of movement to create a performance feedback system. Trainees practice skills such as cannulation, knot tying and cutting. The computer records the procedure and uses the McGill scoring system (incorporating speed and accuracy) to assign numeric scores to the procedure. This output can be viewed immediately or stored for later review by an instructor.

Torso Trainer (Simulab)

This model allows users to gain a realistic perspective of laparoscopic surgery. The model consists of an abdomen with a replaceable skin, which can be insufflated and set up with trocars to perform basic surgical procedures. Skills can also be taught. The trainer accepts a variety of simulated tissues and non-anatomic training props, which are inserted into the abdomen before beginning the procedure.

Tower Trainer (Simulab)

Learning minimally invasive surgery skills is the focus of the Tower Trainer. The system consists of two mirrors, to create a realistically flat 2D image of the surgical object, attached to an adjustable periscope, for adjusting the height of the trainer. There is also a removable magnifying lens, for detailed surgical procedures. The main skills taught are dissection of tissue, suturing, and knot tying. Replaceable simulated tissue is available from the company, although other anatomic and non-anatomic tissue models can be used also.

Training and Test Lung (Michigan Instruments)

This non-anatomic simulator consists of two bellows, one representing each lung. Resistance and compliance changes can be demonstrated, as can resultant patient parameters, such as prolonged expiratory time. Diseases which affect the lungs unequally (partial bronchial occlusion, greater stiffness in one lung) can also be shown to and felt by the user. The "patient" can be ventilated by hand or by a ventilator, or with an additional module, will breathe spontaneously. A computer program can be added to the system to show performance values, but the simulator works without the program as well. The program calculates and displays values such as I:E ratios, minute ventilation, and peak inspiratory pressure in numeric and graphic form.

Trauma Man (Simulab)

This anatomical model provides multiple sites on which to practice ATLS-based surgical procedures. The abdomen contains a site for diagnostic peritoneal lavage, with realistic fluid return (clear or bloody). Both chest tube insertion and pericardiocentesis can be performed on the chest portion of the model. Features include ribs, heart, pericardial sac, and lungs to add to the realism. The neck is designed to allow cricothyroidotomy procedures, and cut-downs are practiced on the separate ankle unit.

Zack Multipurpose Male Care Simulator

Zack trains several male care procedures, including bladder catheterization and no scalpel vasectomies. In addition, the model demonstrates several normal and pathophysiologies, such as scrotal sacks (one containing tumors and one normal for comparison) and rectal and colon tumors (benign and malignant) that can be visualized with an endoscope. Interchangeable prostates allow trainees to understand the difference between nodules, benign masses and malignancies.